Fréquent voyageur (French Edition)
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Shortly after founding a permanent settlement at Quebec City in , Samuel de Champlain sought to ally himself with the local native peoples or First Nations. He decided to send French boys to live among them to learn their languages in order to serve as interpreters, in the hope of persuading the natives to trade with the French rather than with the Dutch, who were active along the Hudson River and Atlantic coast.
The boys learned native languages, customs, and skills, and tended to assimilate quickly to their new environments. Between and , dozens of Frenchmen spent months at a time living among the natives. Over time, these early explorers and interpreters played an increasingly active role in the fur trade, paving the way for the emergence of the coureurs des bois proper in the midth century.
The term "coureur des bois" is most strongly associated with those who engaged in the fur trade in ways that were considered to be outside of the mainstream. Traditionally, the government of New France preferred to let the natives supply furs directly to French merchants, and discouraged French settlers from venturing outside the Saint Lawrence valley.
Translation of "frequent flyer/flier" - English-French dictionary
By the midth century, Montreal had emerged as the center of the fur trade, hosting a yearly fair in August where natives exchanged their pelts for European goods. In , the new governor Louis d'Ailleboust permitted Frenchmen familiar with the wilderness to visit "Huron country" to encourage and escort Hurons to Montreal to participate in the trade. In the s, several factors resulted in a sudden spike in the number of coureurs des bois. First, the population of New France markedly increased during the late 17th century, as the colony experienced a boom in immigration between — Furthermore, renewed peaceful relations with the Iroquois in made traveling into the interior of Canada much less perilous for the French colonists.
Finally, a sudden fall in the price of beaver on the European markets in caused more traders to travel to the "pays d'en haut" , or upper country the area around the Great Lakes , in search of cheaper pelts. This sudden growth alarmed many colonial officials. The recipients of these licenses came to be known as "voyageurs" travelers , who canoed and portaged fur trade goods in the employ of a licensed fur trader or fur trading company. Under the voyageurs, the fur trade began to favor a more organized business model of the times, including monopolistic ownership and hired labor.
From onwards, therefore, the voyageurs began to eclipse the coureurs des bois, although coureurs des bois continued to trade without licenses for several decades. A successful coureur des bois had to possess many skills, including those of businessman and expert canoeist. But the hope of making a profit motivated many, while the promise of adventure and freedom was enough to convince others to become outlaws. Because of the lack of roads and the necessity to transport heavy goods and furs, fur trade in the interior of the continent depended on men conducting long-distance transportation by canoe of fur trade goods, and returning with pelts.
Early travel was dangerous and the coureurs des bois , who traded in uncharted territory, had a high mortality rate. Typically, they left Montreal in the spring, as soon as the rivers and lakes were clear of ice usually May , their canoes loaded with supplies and goods for trading. The course west to the richest beaver lands usually went by way of the Ottawa and Mattawa rivers; it required numerous overland portages.
Alternatively, some canoes proceeded by way of the upper St. This route had fewer portages, but in times of war, it was more exposed to Iroquois attacks. The powerful Five Nations of the Confederacy had territory along the Great Lakes and sought to control their hunting grounds. Such trading journeys often lasted for months and covered thousands of kilometers, with the coureurs des bois sometimes paddling twelve hours a day.
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He could trade for food, hunt, and fish—but trade goods such as "broadcloth, linen and wool blankets, ammunition, metal goods knives, hatchets, kettles , firearms, liquor, gunpowder and sometimes even finished clothing, took up the majority of space in the canoe. The business of a coureur des bois required close contact with the indigenous peoples. Native peoples were essential because they trapped the fur-bearing animals especially beaver and prepared the skins.
Relations between coureurs and natives were not always peaceful, and could sometimes become violent. Trade was often accompanied by reciprocal gift-giving; to the Algonquin and others, exchanging gifts was customary practice to maintain alliances. As wives, indigenous women played a key role as translators, guides and mediators—becoming "women between". The remaining marriages between Algonquins tended to be polygamous , with one husband marrying two or more women. Sexual relationships with coureurs des bois therefore offered native women an alternative to polygamy in a society with few available men.
To French military commanders, who were often also directly involved in the fur trade, such marriages were beneficial in that they improved relations between the French and the natives. Native leaders also encouraged such unions, particularly when the couple formed lasting, permanent bonds.
Jesuits and some upper-level colonial officials viewed these relationships with disdain and disgust. They considered the lasting relationships with native women to be further proof of the lawlessness and perversion of the coureurs des bois. The role and importance of the coureurs des bois have been exaggerated over the course of history. This figure has achieved mythological status, leading to many false accounts, and to the coureurs des bois being assimilated with " Canadiens " Canadians.
If order and discipline were proving difficult to maintain in continental Europe, it seemed impossible that the colonies would fare any better, and it was presumed things would become even worse. The myth of the coureurs des bois as representative of the Canadians was stimulated by the writings of 18th-century Jesuit priest F-X. Charlevoix and the 19th-century American historian Francis Parkman ; their historical accounts are classified as belonging to popular rather than academic history. But his "historical" work has been criticized by historians for being too "light" and for relying too heavily on other authors' material i.
Finally, romans du terroir rural novels also added to the myth of the coureurs des bois by featuring them out of proportion to their number and influence. The coureurs des bois were portrayed in such works as extremely virile, free-spirited and of untameable natures, ideal protagonists in the romanticized novels of important 19th-century writers such as Chateaubriand , Jules Verne and Fenimore Cooper. Most coureurs des bois were primarily or solely fur-trade entrepreneurs and not individually well known. The most prominent coureurs des bois were also explorers and gained fame as such.
He traveled to New France with Samuel de Champlain. Jean Nicolet Nicollet de Belleborne Ca. Nicolet was born in Normandy , France in the late s and moved to New France in In that same year, he was recruited by Samuel de Champlain , who arranged for him to live with a group of Algonquians, designated as the "Nation of the Isle", to learn native languages and later serve as an interpreter. In , Nicolet was sent to make contact with the Nipissing , a group of natives who played an important role in the growing fur trade. After having established a good reputation for himself, Nicolet was sent on an expedition to Green Bay to settle a peace agreement with the natives of that area.
In the early s, des Groseilliers relocated to Quebec , and began to work around Huronia with the Jesuit missions in that area. There he learned the skills of a coureur des bois and in married his second wife, Margueritte.
Radisson and des Grosseilliers would also travel and trade together, as they did throughout the s and s. Together, they explored west into previously unknown territories in search of trade. Having incurred legal problems in New France because of their trade, the two explorers went to France in an attempt to rectify their legal situation. When this attempt failed, the pair turned to the English. Through this liaison with the English and thanks to their considerable knowledge and experience in the area, the pair are credited with the establishment of the Hudson's Bay Company.
Ojibwa traders brought in non-fur commodities as well, such as meat, maple sugar and canoe bark. Ojibwa women were also employed in a variety of tasks to support the operations of the Fort, and were paid in credit at the Indian Shop. See also trading post, Native Women. Interior: During the fur trade era, the term was used to indicate the vast territory north and west of Lake Superior in which the fur trade was conducted.
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Also referred to as the "pays d'en haut", literally "upper country". Interpreter: A person employed by the NWC to provide translation services.
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Usually, interpreters could speak French or English, and one or more Native languages. See also Algonquian and Iroquoian. Inventory: A noun used to describe the quantity of goods or materials on hand, but also a verb used to describe the act or process of determining the goods on hand.
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Much historical information about Fort William comes from an exhaustive inventory done during Lord Selkirk's occupation in Iroquoian: One of twelve linguistic families existing in native Canada at the beginning of the 17th century. Iroquoian-speaking groups lived around Georgian Bay, Lake Erie and Lake Ontario present day southern Quebec and New York State with a high population density based on a largely agricultural subsistence.
To settle outstanding boundary problems caused by this peace, Jay's Treaty was signed in London on November 19th, by the US and Britain. This treaty formally set the boundary line east of the Mississippi between British North America and the United States of America and stipulated that Britain would evacuate western posts by June 1st, ; that merchants of both countries would have free access to lands on either side of the border; that the Mississippi River would be open to both countries; that a commission to settle debts to Britain since the start of the American Revolution would be established; and that American shipping would not be hindered in trade with British possessions.
When this new boundary was officially established in , the NWC was compelled to move its Lake Superior depot from Grand Portage to the Kaministiquia River, where Fort Caministigoyan was built beginning in and completed in It was renamed Fort William in Kaministiquia: An important river in the trade networks used by aboriginal peoples and fur traders. Kaministiquia is an Algonquian word that has had many spellings - Kaministikwia, Caministigoyan - and meanings.
It has been translated as "a river of three mouths" as well as "a meandering river".